Shop Outdoor Directory Guides and Outfitters Outdoor Activities Home Home
Home Activities Features Guides & Outfitters Outdoors Directory Corporate
3x10 spacer
Back to Survival
Psychology of survival
Survival planning and survival kits
Basic survival medicine
Water procurement
Food procurement
Survival use of plants
Poisonous plants
Dangerous animals
Field-expedient weapons, tools, and equipment
Desert survival
Tropical survival
Cold weather survival
Sea survival
Expedient water crossings
Field-expedient direction finding
Using the sun and shadows
Using the moon
Using the stars
Making improvised compasses
Other means of determining direction
Signaling techniques
Survival movement in hostile areas
Contact with people
Survival in man-made hazards
Survival kits
Edible and medicinal plants
Poisonous plants
Dangerous insects and arachnids
Poisonous snakes and lizards
Dangerous fish and mollusks
Clouds: foretellers of weather
Contingency plan of action format
Home / Outdoor Survival


Field-Expedient Direction Finding: Using the Sun and Shadows

The earth's relationship to the sun can help you to determine direction on earth. The sun always rises in the east and sets in the west, but not exactly due east or due west. There is also some seasonal variation. In the northern hemisphere, the sun will be due south when at its highest point in the sky, or when an object casts no appreciable shadow. In the southern hemisphere, this same noonday sun will mark due north. In the northern hemisphere, shadows will move clockwise. Shadows will move counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere. With practice, you can use shadows to determine both direction and time of day. The shadow methods used for direction finding are the shadow-tip and watch methods.

Shadow-Tip Methods

In the first shadow-tip method, find a straight stick 1 meter long, and a level spot free of brush on which the stick will cast a definite shadow. This method is simple and accurate and consists of four steps:

  • Step 1. Place the stick or branch into the ground at a level spot where it will cast a distinctive shadow. Mark the shadow's tip with a stone, twig, or other means. This first shadow mark is always west--everywhere on earth.
  • Step 2. Wait 10 to 15 minutes until the shadow tip moves a few centimeters. Mark the shadow tip's new position in the same way as the first.
  • Step 3. Draw a straight line through the two marks to obtain an approximate east-west line.
  • Step 4. Stand with the first mark (west) to your left and the second mark to your right--you are now facing north. This fact is true everywhere on earth.

An alternate method is more accurate but requires more time. Set up your shadow stick and mark the first shadow in the morning. Use a piece of string to draw a clean arc through this mark and around the stick. At midday, the shadow will shrink and disappear. In the afternoon, it will lengthen again and at the point where it touches the arc, make a second mark. Draw a line through the two marks to get an accurate east-west line (see Figure 18-1).

The Watch Method

You can also determine direction using a common or analog watch--one that has hands. The direction will be accurate if you are using true local time, without any changes for daylight savings time. Remember, the further you are from the equator, the more accurate this method will be. If you only have a digital watch, you can overcome this obstacle. Quickly draw a watch on a circle of paper with the correct time on it and use it to determine your direction at that time.

In the northern hemisphere, hold the watch horizontal and point the hour hand at the sun. Bisect the angle between the hour hand and the 12 o'clock mark to get the north-south line (Figure 18-2). If there is any doubt as to which end of the line is north, remember that the sun rises in the east, sets in the west, and is due south at noon. The sun is in the east before noon and in the west after noon.

Note: If your watch is set on daylight savings time, use the midway point between the hour hand and 1 o'clock to determine the north-south line.

In the southern hemisphere, point the watch's 12 o'clock mark toward the sun and a midpoint halfway between 12 and the hour hand will give you the north-south line (Figure 18-2).

Field-expedient direction finding
Using the sun and shadows | Using the moon | Using the stars | Making improvised compasses | Other means of determining direction


 Survival and Preparedness Sites

 Survival & Shooting News

1 pixel spacer
Top of Page TOP OF PAGE

Copyright © 1996-2012 First Light Net All rights reserved.
Duplication in whole or in part of this Web site without express written consent is prohibited.
First Light Net, a trademark of Predatorial Advertising Associates, L.L.C. is the leader in online marketing and
advertising for one of the largest online networks of fishing, hunting, sports and outdoors related websites.
For problems or questions contact

Big Fish Tackle Top Fishing Sites